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Which two commands are required to enable multicast on a router, knowing that the receivers only
support IGMPv2? (Choose two.)
A. ip pim rp-address
B. ip pim ssm
C. ip pim sparse-mode
D. ip pim passive
Sparse mode logic (pull mode) is the opposite of Dense mode logic (push mode), in Dense mode
it is supposed that in every network there is someone who is requesting the multicast traffic so
PIM-DM routers begin by flooding the multicast traffic out of all their interfaces except those from
where a prune message is received to eliminate the
Refer to the exhibit.
A small enterprise connects its office to two ISPs, using separate T1 links. A static route is used
for the default route, pointing to both interfaces with a different administrative distance, so that one
of the default routes is preferred.
Recently the primary link has been upgraded to a new 10 Mb/s Ethernet link.
After a few weeks, they experienced a failure. The link did not pass traffic, but the primary static
route remained active. They lost their Internet connectivity, even though the backup link was
Which two possible solutions can be implemented to avoid this situation in the future? (Choose
A. Implement HSRP link tracking on the branch router R1.
B. Use a track object with an IP SLA probe for the static route on R1.
C. Track the link state of the Ethernet link using a track object on R1.
D. Use a routing protocol between R1 and the upstream ISP.
Interface tracking allows you to specify another interface on the router for the HSRP process to
monitor in order to alter the HSRP priority for a given group.
If the specified interface\’s line protocol goes down, the HSRP priority of this router is reduced,
allowing another HSRP router with higher priority can become active (if it has preemption
To configure HSRP interface tracking, use the standby [group] track interface [priority] command.
When multiple tracked interfaces are down, the priority is reduced by a cumulative amount. If you
explicitly set the decrement value, then the value is decreased by that amount if that interface is
down, and decrements are cumulative. If you do not set an explicit decrement value, then the
value is decreased by 10 for each interface that goes down, and decrements are cumulative.
The following example uses the following configuration, with the default decrement value of 10.
Note: When an HSRP group number is not specified, the default group number is group 0.
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
standby ip 10.1.1.3
standby priority 110
standby track serial0
standby track serial1
The HSRP behavior with this configuration is:
0 interfaces down = no decrease (priority is 110)
1 interface down = decrease by 10 (priority becomes100)
2 interfaces down = decrease by 10 (priority becomes 90)
Which command is used to enable EtherChannel hashing for Layer 3 IP and Layer 4 port-based
A. mpls ip cef
B. port-channel ip cef
C. mpls ip port-channel cef
D. port-channel load balance
E. mpls ip load-balance
F. ip cef EtherChannel channel-id XOR L4
G. ip cef connection exchange
When you are troubleshooting duplex mismatches, which two errors are typically seen on the full-
duplex end? (Choose two.)
B. FCS errors
C. interface resets
D. late collisions
Which three options are features of VTP version 3? (Choose three.)
A. VTPv3 supports 8K VLANs.
B. VTPv3 supports private VLAN mapping.
C. VTPv3 allows for domain discovery.
D. VTPv3 uses a primary server concept to avoid configuration revision issues.
E. VTPv3 is not compatible with VTPv1 or VTPv2.
F. VTPv3 has a hidden password option.
Key Benefits of VTP Version 3
Much work has gone into improving the usability of VTP version 3 in three major areas:
The new version of VTP offers better administrative control over which device is allowed to update
other devices\’ view of the VLAN topology. The chance of unintended and disruptive changes is
significantly reduced, and availability is increased. The reduced risk of unintended changes will
ease the change process and help speed deployment.
Functionality for the VLAN environment has been significantly expanded. Two enhancements are
most beneficial for today\’s networks:
In 802.1s, how is the VLAN to instance mapping represented in the BPDU?
A. The VLAN to instance mapping is a normal 16-byte field in the MST BPDU.
B. The VLAN to instance mapping is a normal 12-byte field in the MST BPDU.
C. The VLAN to instance mapping is a 16-byte MD5 signature field in the MST BPDU.
D. The VLAN to instance mapping is a 12-byte MD5 signature field in the MST BPDU.
MST Configuration and MST Region
Each switch running MST in the network has a single MST configuration that consists of these
1. An alphanumeric configuration name (32 bytes)
2. A configuration revision number (two bytes)
3. A 4096-element table that associates each of the potential 4096 VLANs supported on the
chassis to a given instance.
In order to be part of a common MST region, a group of switches must share the same
It is up to the network administrator to properly propagate the configuration throughout the region.
Currently, this step is only possible by the means of the command line interface (CLI) or through
Management Protocol (SNMP). Other methods can be envisioned, as the IEEE specification does
not explicitly mention how to accomplish that step.
Note: If for any reason two switches differ on one or more configuration attribute, the switches are
part of different regions. For more information refer to the Region Boundary section of this
In order to ensure consistent VLAN-to-instance mapping, it is necessary for the protocol to be able
to exactly identify the boundaries of the regions. For that purpose, the characteristics of the region
are included in the BPDUs. The exact VLANs-to-instance mapping is not propagated in the BPDU,
because the switches only need to know whether they are in the same region as a neighbor.
Therefore, only a digest of the VLANs-toinstance mapping table is sent, along with the revision
number and the name. Once a switch receives a BPDU, the switch extracts the digest (a
numerical value derived from the VLAN-to-instance mapping table through a mathematical
function) and compares this digest with its own computed digest. If the digests differ, the port on
which the BPDU was received is at the boundary of a region.
In generic terms, a port is at the boundary of a region if the designated bridge on its segment is in
a different region or if it receives legacy 802.1d BPDUs. In this diagram, the port on B1 is at the
boundary of region A, whereas the ports on B2 and B3 are internal to region B:
According to the IEEE 802.1s specification, an MST bridge must be able to handle at least these
One Internal Spanning Tree (IST)
One or more Multiple Spanning Tree Instance(s) (MSTIs)
The terminology continues to evolve, as 802.1s is actually in a pre-standard phase. It is likely
these names will change in the final release of 802.1s. The Cisco implementation supports 16
instances: one IST (instance 0) and 15 MSTIs.
show vtp status
Cisco switches “show vtp status” Field Descriptions has a MD5 digest field that is a 16-byte
checksum of the
VTP configuration as shown below
Router# show vtp status
VTP Version: 3 (capable)
Configuration Revision: 1
Maximum VLANs supported locally: 1005
Number of existing VLANs: 37
VTP Operating Mode: Server
VTP Domain Name: [smartports]
VTP Pruning Mode: Disabled
VTP V2 Mode: Enabled
VTP Traps Generation: Disabled
MD5 digest : 0x26 0xEE 0x0D 0x84 0x73 0x0E 0x1B 0x69
Configuration last modified by 172.20.52.19 at 7-25-08 14:33:43
Local updater ID is 172.20.52.19 on interface Gi5/2 (first layer3 interface fou)
VTP version running: 2
What is the first thing that happens when IPv6 is enabled on an interface on a host?
A. A router solicitation is sent on that interface.
B. There is a duplicate address detection on the host interface.
C. The link local address is assigned on the host interface.
D. A neighbor redirect message is sent on the host interface.
Duplicate address detection (DAD) is used to verify that an IPv6 home address is unique on the
LAN before assigning the address to a physical interface (for example, QDIO). z/OS
Communications Server responds to other nodes doing DAD for IP addresses assigned to the
What is the flooding scope of an OSPFv3 LSA, if the value of the S2 bit is set to 1 and the S1 bit is
set to 0?
A. link local
B. area wide
C. AS wide
The Type 1 router LSA is now link local and the Type 2 Network LSA is AS Wide
S2 and S1 indicate the LSA\’s flooding scope. Table 9-1 shows the possible values of these two
bits and the associated flooding scopes.
Table 9-1 S bits in the OSPFv3 LSA Link State Type field and their associated flooding scopes
LSA Function Code, the last 13 bits of the LS Type field, corresponds to the OSPFv2 Type field.
Table 9-2 shows the common LSA types used by OSPFv3 and the values of their corresponding
LS Types. If you decode the hex values, you will see that the default U bit of all of them is 0. The S
bits of all LSAs except two indicate area scope. Of the remaining two, AS External LSAs have an
AS flooding scope and Link LSAs have a linklocal flooding scope. Most of the OSPFv3 LSAs have
functional counterparts in OSPFv2; these OSPFv2 LSAs and their types are also shown in Table
Table 9-2 OSPFv3 LSA types and their OSPFv2 counterparts
Apart from interdomain multicast routing, what else is MSDP used for?
A. Source Specific Multicast and IGMPv2
B. Announcing multicast sources to BGP speakers
C. Anycast RP
D. Intradomain multicast routing
Which three statements are true about TACACS ? (Choose three.)
A. It is a Cisco proprietary protocol.
B. It runs on TCP port 59. .
C. Authentication and authorization are done at different stages.
D. TACACS encrypts the entire body of the packet, but leaves a standard TACACS header.
E. It is an industry standard protocol.
F. TACACS encrypts both the entire body of the packet and the TACACS header.
TACACS utilizes TCP port 49. It consists of three separate protocols, which can be implemented
TACACS offers multiprotocol support, such as IP and AppleTalk. Normal operation fully encrypts
the body of the packet for more secure communications. It is a Cisco proprietary enhancement to
the original TACACS protocol.
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