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Which two options are contained in a VTP subset advertisement? (Choose two.)
A. followers field
B. MD5 digest
C. VLAN information
D. sequence number
When you add, delete, or change a VLAN in a Catalyst, the server Catalyst where the changes are
made increments the configuration revision and issues a summary advertisement. One or several
subset advertisements follow the summary advertisement. A subset advertisement contains a list
of VLAN information.
If there are several VLANs, more than one subset advertisement can be required in order to
advertise all the VLANs.
Subset Advertisement Packet Format
This formatted example shows that each VLAN information field contains information for a different
VLAN. It is ordered so that lowered-valued ISL VLAN IDs occur first:
Most of the fields in this packet are easy to understand. These are two clarifications:
Which three combinations are valid LACP configurations that will set up a channel? (Choose
Refer to the exhibit.
Which statement is correct about the prefix 22.214.171.124/8?
A. The prefix has encountered a routing loop.
B. The prefix is an aggregate with an as-set.
C. The prefix has been aggregated twice, once in AS 100 and once in AS 200.
D. None of these statements is true.
Refer to the exhibit.
What is the potential issue with this configuration?
A. There is no potential issue; OSPF will work fine in any condition.
B. Sub-optimal routing may occur since there is no area 1 adjacency between the ABRs.
C. This is a wrong OSPF configuration because all routers must be in area 0 only.
D. This is a wrong OSPF configuration because /30 requires 0.0.0.3 wild card.
Refer to the exhibit.
A packet from RTD with destination RTG, is reaching RTB. What is the path this packet will take
from RTB to reach RTG?
A. RTB – RTA – RTG
B. RTB – RTD – RTC – RTA – RTG
C. RTB – RTF – RTE – RTA – RTG
D. RTB will not be able to reach RTG since the OSPF configuration is wrong.
Refer to the exhibit.
R1 is not learning about the 172.16.10.0 subnet from the BGP neighbor R2 (126.96.36.199).
What can be done so that R1 will learn about this network?
A. Disable auto-summary on R2.
B. Configure an explicit network command for the 172.16.10.0 subnet on R2.
C. Subnet information cannot be passed between IBGP peers.
D. Disable auto-summary on R1.
By default, BGP does not accept subnets redistributed from IGP. To advertise and carry subnet
routes in BGP, use an explicit network command or the no auto-summary command. If you disable
auto-summarization and have not entered a network command, you will not advertise network
routes for networks with subnet routes unless they contain a summary route.
Which two statements are correct about Nonstop Forwarding? (Choose two.)
A. It allows the standby RP to take control of the device after a hardware or software fault on the
B. It is a Layer 3 function that works with SSO to minimize the amount of time a network is
unavailable to users following a switchover.
C. It is supported by the implementation of EIGRP, OSPF, RIPv2, and BGP protocols.
D. It synchronizes startup configuration, startup variables, and running configuration.
E. The main objective of NSF is to continue forwarding IP packets following a switchover.
F. Layer 2 802.1w or 802.1s must be used, as 802.1d cannot process the Layer 2 changes.
G. Routing protocol tuning parameters must be the same as the NSF parameters, or failover will
Cisco Nonstop Forwarding (NSF) works with the Stateful Switchover (SSO) feature in Cisco IOS
software. NSF works with SSO to minimize the amount of time a network is unavailable to its
users following a switchover. The main objective of Cisco NSF is to continue forwarding IP
packets following a Route Processor (RP) switchover.
Which two multicast address ranges are assigned as source-specific multicast destination
addresses and are reserved for use by source-specific applications and protocols? (Choose two.)
Explanation: Source-specific multicast (SSM) is a method of delivering multicast packets in which
the only packets that are delivered to a receiver are those originating from a specific source
address requested by the receiver. By so limiting the source, SSM reduces demands on the
network and improves security.
SSM requires that the receiver specify the source address and explicitly excludes the use of the (*,
G) join for all multicast groups in RFC 3376, which is possible only in IPv4\’s IGMPv3 and IPv6\’s
Source-specific multicast is best understood in contrast to any-source multicast (ASM). In the
ASM service model a receiver expresses interest in traffic to a multicast address. The multicast
1. discover all multicast sources sending to that address, and
2. route data from all sources to all interested receivers.
This behavior is particularly well suited to groupware applications where
1. all participants in the group want to be aware of all other participants, and
2. the list of participants is not known in advance.
The source discovery burden on the network can become significant when the number of sources
In the SSM service model, in addition to the receiver expressing interest in traffic to a multicast
address, the receiver expresses interest in receiving traffic from only one specific source sending
to that multicast address.
This relieves the network of discovering many multicast sources and reduces the amount of
multicast routing information that the network must maintain.
SSM requires support in last-hop routers and in the receiver\’s operating system. SSM support is
not required in other network components, including routers and even the sending host. Interest in
multicast traffic from a specific source is conveyed from hosts to routers using IGMPv3 as
specified in RFC 4607.
SSM destination addresses must be in the ranges 188.8.131.52/8 for IPv4 or FF3x::/96 for IPv6.
How is RPF used in multicast routing?
A. to prevent multicast packets from looping
B. to prevent PIM packets from looping
C. to instruct PIM where to send a (*, G) or (S, G) join message
D. to prevent multicast packets from looping and to instruct PIM where to send a (*, G) or (S, G)
Refer to the exhibit.
What does the incoming interface of the above (*, G) entry indicate?
A. the interface closest to the source, according to the unicast routing table
B. the interface where an IGMP join has been received
C. the interface with the highest IP address
D. the last interface to hear a PIM (*, G) join
E. the interface closest to the RP, according to the unicast routing table
A source tree is the simplest form of distribution tree. The source host of the multicast traffic is
located at the root of the tree, and the receivers are located at the ends of the branches. Multicast
traffic travels from the source host down the tree toward the receivers. The forwarding decision on
which interface a multicast packet should be transmitted out is based on the multicast forwarding
table. This table consists of a series of multicast state entries that are cached in the router. State
entries for a source tree use the notation (S, G) pronounced S comma G. The letters represents
the IP address of the source, and G represents the group address.
Shared trees differ from source trees in that the root of the tree is a common point somewhere in
This common point is referred to as the rendezvous point (RP). The RP is the point at which
receivers join to learn of active sources. Multicast sources must transmit their traffic to the RP.
When receivers join a multicast group on a shared tree, the root of the tree is always the RP, and
multicast traffic is transmitted from the RP down toward the receivers. Therefore, the RP acts as a
go-between for the sources and receivers. An RP can be the root for all multicast groups in the
network, or different ranges of multicast groups can be associated with different RPs.
Multicast forwarding entries for a shared tree use the notation (*, G), which is pronounced star
comma G. This is because all sources for a particular group share the same tree. (The multicast
groups go to the same RP.)
Therefore, the * or wildcard represents all sources.
Additional Information from Microsoft
Multicast traffic from source 184.108.40.206 (for example) uses the RPT, meaning the source sends it
to the RP rather than to the multicast group (the router would denote this by having a (*, G) entry
rather than a (S, G) entry). Before sending this traffic, Router 1 checks its unicast routing table to
see if packets from the RP are arriving on the correct interface. In this case they are, because they
arrive on interface I1, and the packets are forwarded.
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