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A new backup connection is being deployed on a remote site router. The stability of the connection
has been a concern. In order to provide more information to EIGRP regarding this interface, you
wish to incorporate the “reliability” cost metric in the EIGRP calculation with the command metric
weights 1 0 1 0 1.
What impact will this modification on the remote site router have for other existing EIGRP
neighborships from the same EIGRP domain?
A. Existing neighbors will immediately begin using the new metric.
B. Existing neighbors will use the new metric after clearing the EIGRP neighbors.
C. Existing neighbors will resync, maintaining the neighbor relationship.
D. All existing neighbor relationships will go down.
Refer to the exhibit.
A small enterprise connects its office to two ISPs, using separate T1 links. A static route is used
for the default route, pointing to both interfaces with a different administrative distance, so that one
of the default routes is preferred.
Recently the primary link has been upgraded to a new 10 Mb/s Ethernet link.
After a few weeks, they experienced a failure. The link did not pass traffic, but the primary static
route remained active. They lost their Internet connectivity, even though the backup link was
Which two possible solutions can be implemented to avoid this situation in the future? (Choose
A. Implement HSRP link tracking on the branch router R1.
B. Use a track object with an IP SLA probe for the static route on R1.
C. Track the link state of the Ethernet link using a track object on R1.
D. Use a routing protocol between R1 and the upstream ISP.
Interface tracking allows you to specify another interface on the router for the HSRP process to
monitor in order to alter the HSRP priority for a given group.
If the specified interface\’s line protocol goes down, the HSRP priority of this router is reduced,
allowing another HSRP router with higher priority can become active (if it has preemption
To configure HSRP interface tracking, use the standby [group] track interface [priority] command.
When multiple tracked interfaces are down, the priority is reduced by a cumulative amount. If you
explicitly set the decrement value, then the value is decreased by that amount if that interface is
down, and decrements are cumulative. If you do not set an explicit decrement value, then the
value is decreased by 10 for each interface that goes down, and decrements are cumulative.
The following example uses the following configuration, with the default decrement value of 10.
Note: When an HSRP group number is not specified, the default group number is group 0.
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
standby ip 10.1.1.3
standby priority 110
standby track serial0
standby track serial1
The HSRP behavior with this configuration is:
0 interfaces down = no decrease (priority is 110)
1 interface down = decrease by 10 (priority becomes100)
2 interfaces down = decrease by 10 (priority becomes 90)
Which three options are considered in the spanning-tree decision process? (Choose three.)
A. lowest root bridge ID
B. lowest path cost to root bridge
C. lowest sender bridge ID
D. highest port ID
E. highest root bridge ID
F. highest path cost to root bridge
Configuration bridge protocol data units (BPDUs) are sent between switches for each port.
Switches use s four step process to save a copy of the best BPDU seen on every port. When a
port receives a better BPDU, it stops sending them. If the BPDUs stop arriving for 20 seconds
(default), it begins sending them again.
Step 1 Lowest Root Bridge ID (BID)
Step 2 Lowest Path Cost to Root Bridge
Step 3 Lowest Sender BID
Step 4 Lowest Port ID
Cisco General Networking Theory Quick Reference Sheets
What is the flooding scope of an OSPFv3 LSA, if the value of the S2 bit is set to 1 and the S1 bit is
set to 0?
A. link local
B. area wide
C. AS wide
The Type 1 router LSA is now link local and the Type 2 Network LSA is AS Wide
S2 and S1 indicate the LSA\’s flooding scope. Table 9-1 shows the possible values of these two
bits and the associated flooding scopes.
Table 9-1 S bits in the OSPFv3 LSA Link State Type field and their associated flooding scopes
LSA Function Code, the last 13 bits of the LS Type field, corresponds to the OSPFv2 Type field.
Table 9-2 shows the common LSA types used by OSPFv3 and the values of their corresponding
LS Types. If you decode the hex values, you will see that the default U bit of all of them is 0. The S
bits of all LSAs except two indicate area scope. Of the remaining two, AS External LSAs have an
AS flooding scope and Link LSAs have a linklocal flooding scope. Most of the OSPFv3 LSAs have
functional counterparts in OSPFv2; these OSPFv2 LSAs and their types are also shown in Table
Table 9-2 OSPFv3 LSA types and their OSPFv2 counterparts
Which command will define a VRF with name \’CCIE\’ in IPv6?
A. ip vrf CCIE
B. ipv6 vrf CCIE
C. vrf definition CCIE
D. ipv6 vrf definition CCIE
For which routes does LDP advertise a label binding?
A. all routes in the routing table
B. only the IGP and BGP routes in the routing table
C. only the BGP routes in the routing table
D. only the IGP routes in the routing table
Which three fields are optional in an OSPFv3 external LSA? (Choose three.)
A. Forwarding Address
B. External Route
C. Reference Link-State ID
E. Prefix Options
As with OSPFv2, the AS-External LSA advertises prefixes external to the OSPF routing domain;
one LSA is required for each external prefix advertised. However, the format of the OSPFv3 As-
External LSA (Figure 9-10) is different from its OSPFv2 counterpart.
Figure 9-10. OSPFv3 AS-External LSA
http://fengnet.com/book/CCIE Professional Development Routing TCPIP Volu
Which type of domains is interconnected using Multicast Source Discovery Protocol?
Explanation: Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP) is a Protocol Independent Multicast
(PIM) family multicast routing protocol defined by Experimental RFC 3618. MSDP interconnects
multiple IPv4 PIM Sparse-Mode (PIM-SM) domains which enables PIM-SM to have Rendezvous
Point (RP) redundancy and inter-domain multicasting.
Refer to the exhibit.
What does the incoming interface of the above (*, G) entry indicate?
A. the interface closest to the source, according to the unicast routing table
B. the interface where an IGMP join has been received
C. the interface with the highest IP address
D. the last interface to hear a PIM (*, G) join
E. the interface closest to the RP, according to the unicast routing table
A source tree is the simplest form of distribution tree. The source host of the multicast traffic is
located at the root of the tree, and the receivers are located at the ends of the branches. Multicast
traffic travels from the source host down the tree toward the receivers. The forwarding decision on
which interface a multicast packet should be transmitted out is based on the multicast forwarding
table. This table consists of a series of multicast state entries that are cached in the router. State
entries for a source tree use the notation (S, G) pronounced S comma G. The letters represents
the IP address of the source, and G represents the group address.
Shared trees differ from source trees in that the root of the tree is a common point somewhere in
This common point is referred to as the rendezvous point (RP). The RP is the point at which
receivers join to learn of active sources. Multicast sources must transmit their traffic to the RP.
When receivers join a multicast group on a shared tree, the root of the tree is always the RP, and
multicast traffic is transmitted from the RP down toward the receivers. Therefore, the RP acts as a
go-between for the sources and receivers. An RP can be the root for all multicast groups in the
network, or different ranges of multicast groups can be associated with different RPs.
Multicast forwarding entries for a shared tree use the notation (*, G), which is pronounced star
comma G. This is because all sources for a particular group share the same tree. (The multicast
groups go to the same RP.)
Therefore, the * or wildcard represents all sources.
Additional Information from Microsoft
Multicast traffic from source 188.8.131.52 (for example) uses the RPT, meaning the source sends it
to the RP rather than to the multicast group (the router would denote this by having a (*, G) entry
rather than a (S, G) entry). Before sending this traffic, Router 1 checks its unicast routing table to
see if packets from the RP are arriving on the correct interface. In this case they are, because they
arrive on interface I1, and the packets are forwarded.
Which IGMPv2 message contains a non-zero “Max Response Time”?
A. Membership Query
B. Membership Report
C. Membership Delay
D. Backward Compatible IGMPv1 Report Message
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