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A branch router is configured with an egress QoS policy that was designed for a total number of
10 concurrent VOIP calls.
Due to expansion, 15 VOIP calls are now running over the link, but after the 14th call was
established, all calls were affected and the voice quality was dramatically degraded.
Assuming that there is enough bandwidth on the link for all of this traffic, which part of the QoS
configuration should be updated due to the new traffic profile?
A. Increase the shaping rate for the priority queue. B.
Remove the policer applied on the priority queue. C.
Remove the shaper applied on the priority queue. D.
Increase the policing rate for the priority queue.
When you are troubleshooting duplex mismatches, which two errors are typically seen on the full-
duplex end? (Choose two.)
B. FCS errors
C. interface resets
D. late collisions
Which three options are considered in the spanning-tree decision process? (Choose three.)
A. lowest root bridge ID
B. lowest path cost to root bridge
C. lowest sender bridge ID
D. highest port ID
E. highest root bridge ID
F. highest path cost to root bridge
Configuration bridge protocol data units (BPDUs) are sent between switches for each port.
Switches use s four step process to save a copy of the best BPDU seen on every port. When a
port receives a better BPDU, it stops sending them. If the BPDUs stop arriving for 20 seconds
(default), it begins sending them again.
Step 1 Lowest Root Bridge ID (BID)
Step 2 Lowest Path Cost to Root Bridge
Step 3 Lowest Sender BID
Step 4 Lowest Port ID
Cisco General Networking Theory Quick Reference Sheets
In 802.1s, how is the VLAN to instance mapping represented in the BPDU?
A. The VLAN to instance mapping is a normal 16-byte field in the MST BPDU.
B. The VLAN to instance mapping is a normal 12-byte field in the MST BPDU.
C. The VLAN to instance mapping is a 16-byte MD5 signature field in the MST BPDU.
D. The VLAN to instance mapping is a 12-byte MD5 signature field in the MST BPDU.
MST Configuration and MST Region
Each switch running MST in the network has a single MST configuration that consists of these
1. An alphanumeric configuration name (32 bytes)
2. A configuration revision number (two bytes)
3. A 4096-element table that associates each of the potential 4096 VLANs supported on the
chassis to a given instance.
In order to be part of a common MST region, a group of switches must share the same
It is up to the network administrator to properly propagate the configuration throughout the region.
Currently, this step is only possible by the means of the command line interface (CLI) or through
Management Protocol (SNMP). Other methods can be envisioned, as the IEEE specification does
not explicitly mention how to accomplish that step.
Note: If for any reason two switches differ on one or more configuration attribute, the switches are
part of different regions. For more information refer to the Region Boundary section of this
In order to ensure consistent VLAN-to-instance mapping, it is necessary for the protocol to be able
to exactly identify the boundaries of the regions. For that purpose, the characteristics of the region
are included in the BPDUs. The exact VLANs-to-instance mapping is not propagated in the BPDU,
because the switches only need to know whether they are in the same region as a neighbor.
Therefore, only a digest of the VLANs-toinstance mapping table is sent, along with the revision
number and the name. Once a switch receives a BPDU, the switch extracts the digest (a
numerical value derived from the VLAN-to-instance mapping table through a mathematical
function) and compares this digest with its own computed digest. If the digests differ, the port on
which the BPDU was received is at the boundary of a region.
In generic terms, a port is at the boundary of a region if the designated bridge on its segment is in
a different region or if it receives legacy 802.1d BPDUs. In this diagram, the port on B1 is at the
boundary of region A, whereas the ports on B2 and B3 are internal to region B:
According to the IEEE 802.1s specification, an MST bridge must be able to handle at least these
One Internal Spanning Tree (IST)
One or more Multiple Spanning Tree Instance(s) (MSTIs)
The terminology continues to evolve, as 802.1s is actually in a pre-standard phase. It is likely
these names will change in the final release of 802.1s. The Cisco implementation supports 16
instances: one IST (instance 0) and 15 MSTIs.
show vtp status
Cisco switches “show vtp status” Field Descriptions has a MD5 digest field that is a 16-byte
checksum of the
VTP configuration as shown below
Router# show vtp status
VTP Version: 3 (capable)
Configuration Revision: 1
Maximum VLANs supported locally: 1005
Number of existing VLANs: 37
VTP Operating Mode: Server
VTP Domain Name: [smartports]
VTP Pruning Mode: Disabled
VTP V2 Mode: Enabled
VTP Traps Generation: Disabled
MD5 digest : 0x26 0xEE 0x0D 0x84 0x73 0x0E 0x1B 0x69
Configuration last modified by 172.20.52.19 at 7-25-08 14:33:43
Local updater ID is 172.20.52.19 on interface Gi5/2 (first layer3 interface fou)
VTP version running: 2
Refer to the exhibit.
Which path is selected as best path?
A. path 1, because it is learned from IGP B.
path 1, because the metric is the lowest C.
path 2, because it is external
D. path 2, because it has the higher router ID
What action will a BGP route reflector take when it receives a prefix marked with the community
attribute NO ADVERTISE from a client peer?
A. It will advertise the prefix to all other client peers and non-client peers.
B. It will not advertise the prefix to EBGP peers.
C. It will only advertise the prefix to all other IBGP peers.
D. It will not advertise the prefix to any peers.
Refer to the exhibit.
What triggered the first SPF recalculation?
A. changes in a router LSA, subnet LSA, and external LSA
B. changes in a router LSA, summary network LSA, and external LSA
C. changes in a router LSA, summary network LSA, and summary ASBR LSA
D. changes in a router LSA, summary ASBR LSA, and external LSA
Is built around links, and any IP prefix change in an area will trigger a full SPF. It advertises IP
information in Router and Network LSAs. The routers thus, advertise both the IP prefix information
(or the connected subnet information) and topology information in the same LSAs. This implies
that if an IP address attached to an interface changes, OSPF routers would have to originate a
Router LSA or a Network LSA, which btw also carries the topology information. This would trigger
a full SPF on all routers in that area, since the same LSAs are flooded to convey topological
change information. This can be an issue with an access router or the one sitting at the edge,
since many stub links can change regularly.
Only changes in interarea, external and NSSA routes result in partial SPF calculation (since type
3, 4, 5 and 7 LSAs only advertise IP prefix information) and thus IS-IS
How will EIGRPv6 react if there is an IPv6 subnet mask mismatch between the Global Unicast
addresses on a point-to-point link?
A. EIGRPv6 will form a neighbor relationship.
B. EIGRPv6 will not form a neighbor relationship.
C. EIGRPv6 will form a neighbor relationship, but with the log MSG: “EIGRPv6 neighbor not on a
D. EIGRPv6 will form a neighbor relationship, but routes learned from that neighbor will not be
installed in the routing table.
Answer: A Explanation:
Which two tunneling techniques support IPv6 multicasting? (Choose two.)
When IPv6 multicast is supported (over a 6to4 tunnel), an IPv6 multicast routing protocol must be
Restrictions for Implementing IPv6 Multicast
IPv6 multicast for Cisco IOS software uses MLD version 2. This version of MLD is fully backward-
compatible with MLD version 1 (described in RFC 2710). Hosts that support only MLD version 1
will interoperate with a router running MLD version 2. Mixed LANs with both MLD version 1 and
MLD version 2 hosts are likewise supported.
IPv6 multicast is supported only over IPv4 tunnels in Cisco IOS Release 12.3(2)T, Cisco IOS
(18)S, and Cisco IOS Release 12.0(26)S.
When the bidirectional (bidir) range is used in a network, all routers in that network must be able to
understand the bidirectional range in the bootstrap message (BSM).
IPv6 multicast routing is disabled by default when the ipv6 unicast-routing command is configured.
On Cisco Catalyst 6500 and Cisco 7600 series routers, the ipv6 multicast-routing also must be
enabled in order to use IPv6 unicast routing
In order to maintain security, with which hop count are IPv6 neighbor discovery packets sent?
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