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What does the term “Ethical Hacking” mean?
A. Someone who is hacking for ethical reasons.
B. Someone who is using his/her skills for ethical reasons.
C. Someone who is using his/her skills for defensive purposes.
D. Someone who is using his/her skills for offensive purposes.
Correct Answer: C
Ethical hacking is only about defending your self or your employer against malicious persons by using the same techniques and skills.
What are the two basic types of attacks?(Choose two.
Correct Answer: BD
Passive and active attacks are the two basic types of attacks.
Steven works as a security consultant and frequently performs penetration tests for Fortune 500 companies. Steven runs external and internal tests and then creates reports to show the companies where their weak areas are. Steven always signs a non-disclosure agreement before performing his tests. What would Steven be considered?
A. Whitehat Hacker
B. BlackHat Hacker
C. Grayhat Hacker
D. Bluehat Hacker
Correct Answer: A
A white hat hacker, also rendered as ethical hacker, is, in the realm of information technology, a person who is ethically opposed to the abuse of computer systems. Realization that the Internet now represents human voices from around the world has made the defense of its integrity an important pastime for many. A white hat generally focuses on securing IT systems, whereas a black hat (the opposite) would like to break into them.
ABC.com is legally liable for the content of email that is sent from its systems, regardless of whether the message was sent for private or business-related purpose. This could lead to prosecution for the sender and for the company\’s directors if, for example, outgoing email was found to contain material that was pornographic, racist or likely to incite someone to commit an act of terrorism.
You can always defend yourself by “ignorance of the law” clause.
Correct Answer: B
Ignorantia juris non excusat or Ignorantia legis neminem excusat (Latin for “ignorance of the law does not excuse” or “ignorance of the law excuses no one”) is a public policy holding that a person who is unaware of a law may not escape liability for violating that law merely because he or she was unaware of its content; that is, persons have presumed knowledge of the law. Presumed knowledge of the law is the principle in jurisprudence that one is bound by a law even if one does not know of it. It has also been defined as the “prohibition of ignorance of the law”.
If you receive a RST packet while doing an ACK scan, it indicates that the port is open.(True/False).
Correct Answer: A
When and ACK is sent to an open port, a RST is returned.
Which of the following is NOT a valid NetWare access level?
A. Not Logged in
B. Logged in
C. Console Access
Correct Answer: D
Administrator is an account not a access level.
Justine is the systems administrator for her company, an international shipping company with offices all over the world. Recent US regulations have forced the company to implement stronger and more secure means of communication. Justine and other administrators have been put in charge of securing the company\’s digital communication lines. After implementing email encryption, Justine now needs to implement robust digital signatures to ensure data authenticity and reliability. Justine has decided to implement digital signatures which are a variant of DSA and that operate on elliptical curve groups. These signatures are more efficient than DSA and are not vulnerable to a number field sieve attacks.
What type of signature has Justine decided to implement?
A. She has decided to implement ElGamal signatures since they offer more reliability than the typical DSA signatures
B. Justine has decided to use ECDSA signatures since they are more efficient than DSA signatures
C. Justine is now utilizing SHA-1 with RSA signatures to help ensure data reliability
D. These types of signatures that Justine has decided to use are called RSA-PSS signatures
Correct Answer: B
The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) is a variant of the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) which uses Elliptic curve cryptography. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elliptic_Curve_DSA
Giles is the network administrator for his company, a graphics design company based in Dallas. Most of the network is comprised of Windows servers and workstations, except for some designers that prefer to use MACs. These MAC users are running on the MAC OS X operating system. These MAC users also utilize iChat to talk between each other. Tommy, one of these MAC users, calls Giles and says that his computer is running very slow. Giles then gets more calls from the other MAC users saying they are receiving instant messages from Tommy even when he says he is not on his computer. Giles immediately unplugs Tommy\’s computer from the network to take a closer look. He opens iChat on Tommy\’s computer and it says that it sent a file called latestpics.tgz to all the other MAC users. Tommy says he never sent those files. Giles also sees that many of the computer\’s applications appear to be altered. The path where the files should be has an altered file and the original application is stored in the file\’s resource fork.
What has Giles discovered on Tommy\’s computer?
A. He has discovered OSX/Chat-burner virus on Tommy\’s computer
B. Giles has found the OSX/Leap-A virus on Tommy\’s computer
C. This behavior is indicative of the OSX/Inqtana.A virus
D. On Tommy\’s computer, Giles has discovered an apparent infection of the OSX/Transmitter.B virus
Correct Answer: B
OSX.Leap.A is a worm that targets installs of Macintosh OS X and spreads via iChat Instant Messenger program. http://www.symantec.com/security_response/writeup.jsp?docid=2006-021614-4006-99
Bob was frustrated with his competitor, Brownies Inc., and decided to launch an attack that would result in serious financial losses. He planned the attack carefully and carried out the attack at the appropriate moment. Meanwhile, Trent, an administrator at Brownies Inc., realized that their main financial transaction server had been attacked. As a result of the attack, the server crashed and Trent needed to reboot the system, as no one was able to access the resources of the company. This process involves human interaction to fix it. What kind of Denial of Service attack was best illustrated in the scenario above?
A. DOS attacks which involves flooding a network or system
B. DOS attacks which involves crashing a network or system
C. DOS attacks which is done accidentally or deliberately
D. Simple DDOS attack
Correct Answer: B
This is not a DDOS, there is only one person involved as attacker
More sophisticated IDSs look for common shellcode signatures. But even these systems can be bypassed, by using polymorphic shellcode. This is a technique common among virus writers – it basically hides the true nature of the shellcode in different disguises.
How does a polymorphic shellcode work?
A. They convert the shellcode into Unicode, using loader to convert back to machine code then executing them
B. They compress shellcode into normal instructions, uncompress the shellcode using loader code and then executing the shellcode
C. They reverse the working instructions into opposite order by masking the IDS signatures
D. They encrypt the shellcode by XORing values over the shellcode, using loader code to decrypt the shellcode, and then executing the decrypted shellcode
Correct Answer: A
In computer security, a shellcode is a small piece of code used as the payload in the exploitation of a software vulnerability. It is called “shellcode” because it typically starts a command shell from which the attacker can control the compromised machine. Shellcode is commonly written in machine code, but any piece of code that performs a similar task can be called shellcode
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