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This IDS defeating technique works by splitting a datagram (or packet) into multiple
fragments and the IDS will not spot the true nature of the fully assembled datagram. The
datagram is not reassembled until it reaches its final destination. It would be a processor-
intensive task for IDS to reassemble all fragments itself, and on a busy system the packet
will slip through the IDS onto the network. What is this technique called?
A. IP Routing or Packet Dropping
B. IDS Spoofing or Session Assembly
C. IP Fragmentation or Session Splicing
D. IP Splicing or Packet Reassembly
In TCP communications there are 8 flags; FIN, SYN, RST, PSH, ACK, URG, ECE, CWR.
These flags have decimal numbers assigned to them:
FIN = 1
SYN = 2
RST = 4
PSH = 8
ACK = 16
URG = 32
ECE = 64
CWR = 128
Jason is the security administrator of ASPEN Communications. He analyzes some traffic
using Wireshark and has enabled the following filters.
What is Jason trying to accomplish here?
A. SYN,FIN,URG and PSH
More sophisticated IDSs look for common shellcode signatures. But even these systems
can be bypassed, by using polymorphic shellcode. This is a technique common among
virus writers ?it basically hides the true nature of the shellcode in different disguises.
How does a polymorphic shellcode work?
A. They encrypt the shellcode by XORing values over the shellcode,using loader code to
decrypt the shellcode,and then executing the decrypted shellcode
B. They convert the shellcode into Unicode,using loader to convert back to machine code
then executing them
C. They reverse the working instructions into opposite order by masking the IDS signatures
D. They compress shellcode into normal instructions,uncompress the shellcode using
loader code and then executing the shellcode
Stephanie works as senior security analyst for a manufacturing company in Detroit.
Stephanie manages network security throughout the organization. Her colleague Jason told
her in confidence that he was able to see confidential corporate information posted on the
external website http://www.jeansclothesman.com. He tries random URLs on the
company\’s website and finds confidential information leaked over the web. Jason says this
happened about a month ago. Stephanie visits the said URLs, but she finds nothing. She is
very concerned about this, since someone should be held accountable if there was
sensitive information posted on the website.
Where can Stephanie go to see past versions and pages of a website?
A. She should go to the web page Samspade.org to see web pages that might no longer
be on the website
B. If Stephanie navigates to Search.com; she will see old versions of the company website
C. Stephanie can go to Archive.org to see past versions of the company website
D. AddressPast.com would have any web pages that are no longer hosted on the
How many bits encryption does SHA-1 use?
A. 64 bits
B. 128 bits
C. 256 bits
D. 160 bits
This type of Port Scanning technique splits TCP header into several packets so that the
packet filters are not able to detect what the packets intends to do.
A. UDP Scanning
B. IP Fragment Scanning
C. Inverse TCP flag scanning
D. ACK flag scanning
Jack Hacker wants to break into Brown Co.\’s computers and obtain their secret double
fudge cookie recipe. Jack calls Jane, an accountant at Brown Co., pretending to be an
administrator from Brown Co. Jack tells Jane that there has been a problem with some
accounts and asks her to verify her password with him \’\’just to double check our records.\’\’
Jane does not suspect anything amiss, and parts with her password. Jack can now access
Brown Co.\’s computers with a valid user name and password, to steal the cookie recipe.
What kind of attack is being illustrated here?
A. Reverse Psychology
B. Reverse Engineering
C. Social Engineering
D. Spoofing Identity
E. Faking Identity
How do you defend against Privilege Escalation?
A. Use encryption to protect sensitive data
B. Restrict the interactive logon privileges
C. Run services as unprivileged accounts
D. Allow security settings of IE to zero or Low
E. Run users and applications on the least privileges
Lori is a Certified Ethical Hacker as well as a Certified Hacking Forensics Investigator
working as an IT security consultant. Lori has been hired on by Kiley Innovators, a large
marketing firm that recently underwent a string of thefts and corporate espionage incidents.
Lori is told that a rival marketing company came out with an exact duplicate product right
before Kiley Innovators was about to release it. The executive team believes that an
employee is leaking information to the rival company. Lori questions all employees,
reviews server logs, and firewall logs; after which she finds nothing. Lori is then given
permission to search through the corporate email system. She searches by email being
sent to and sent from the rival marketing company.
She finds one employee that appears to be sending very large email to this other marketing
company, even though they should have no reason to be communicating with them. Lori
tracks down the actual emails sent and upon opening them, only finds picture files attached
to them. These files seem perfectly harmless, usually containing some kind of joke. Lori
decides to use some special software to further examine the pictures and finds that each
one had hidden text that was stored in each picture.
What technique was used by the Kiley Innovators employee to send information to the rival
A. The Kiley Innovators employee used cryptography to hide the information in the emails
B. The method used by the employee to hide the information was logical watermarking
C. The employee used steganography to hide information in the picture attachments
D. By using the pictures to hide information,the employee utilized picture fuzzing
TCP SYN Flood attack uses the three-way handshake mechanism.
1. An attacker at system A sends a SYN packet to victim at system B.
2. System B sends a SYN/ACK packet to victim A.
3. As a normal three-way handshake mechanism system A should send an ACK packet to
system B, however, system A does not send an ACK packet to system B. In this case client
B is waiting for an ACK packet from client A.
This status of client B is called _________________
B. “half open”
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