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Question 1:

Which access model is most appropriate for companies with a high employee turnover?

A. Role-based access control

B. Mandatory access control

C. Lattice-based access control

D. Discretionary access control

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: The underlying problem for a company with a lot of turnover is assuring that new employees are assigned the correct access permissions and that those permissions are removed when they leave the company.

Selecting the best answer requires one to think about the access control options in the context of a company with a lot of flux in the employee population. RBAC simplifies the task of assigning permissions because the permissions are assigned to roles which do not change based on who belongs to them. As employees join the company, it is simply a matter of assigning them to the appropriate roles and their permissions derive from their assigned role. They will implicitely inherit the permissions of the role or roles they have been assigned to. When they leave the company or change jobs, their role assignment is revoked/changed appropriately.

Mandatory access control is incorrect. While controlling access based on the clearence level of employees and the sensitivity of obects is a better choice than some of the other incorrect answers, it is not the best choice when RBAC is an option and you are looking for the best solution for a high number of employees constantly leaving or joining the company.

Lattice-based access control is incorrect. The lattice is really a mathematical concept that is used in formally modeling information flow (Bell-Lapadula, Biba, etc). In the context of the question, an abstract model of information flow is not an appropriate choice. CBK, pp. 324- Discretionary access control is incorrect. When an employee joins or leaves the company, the object owner must grant or revoke access for that employee on all the objects they own. Problems would also arise when the owner of an object leaves the company. The complexity of assuring that the permissions are added and removed correctly makes this the least desirable solution in this situation. Alll in One, third edition page 165 RBAC is discussed on pp. 189 through 191 of the ISC(2) guide.

Question 2:

An access system that grants users only those rights necessary for them to perform their work is operating on which security principle?

A. Discretionary Access

B. Least Privilege

C. Mandatory Access

D. Separation of Duties

Correct Answer: B

Explanation: Source: TIPTON, Hal, (ISC)2, Introduction to the CISSP Exam presentation.

Question 3:

Which of the following describes the major disadvantage of many Single Sign-On (SSO) implementations?

A. Once an individual obtains access to the system through the initial log-on, they have access to all resources within the environment that the account has access to.

B. The initial logon process is cumbersome to discourage potential intruders.

C. Once a user obtains access to the system through the initial log-on, they only need to logon to some applications.

D. Once a user obtains access to the system through the initial log-on, he has to logout from all other systems

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: Single Sign-On is a distrubuted Access Control methodology where an individual only has to authenticate once and would have access to all primary and secondary network domains. The individual would not be required to re-

authenticate when they needed additional resources. The security issue that this creates is if a fraudster is able to compromise those credential they too would have access to all the resources that account has access to.

All the other answers are incorrect as they are distractors.

Question 4:

Which one of the following factors is NOT one on which Authentication is based?

A. Type 1 Something you know, such as a PIN or password

B. Type 2 Something you have, such as an ATM card or smart card

C. Type 3 Something you are (based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits), such as a fingerprint or retina scan

D. Type 4 Something you are, such as a system administrator or security administrator

Correct Answer: D

Explanation: Authentication is based on the following three factor types:

Type 1. Something you know, such as a PIN or password Type 2. Something you have, such as an ATM card or smart card Type 3. Something you are (Unique physical characteristic), such as a fingerprint or retina scan

Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 36. Also: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw-Hill/

Osborne, 2002, chapter 4: Access Control (pages 132-133).

Question 5:

Which of the following is required in order to provide accountability?

A. Authentication

B. Integrity

C. Confidentiality

D. Audit trails

Correct Answer: D

Explanation: Accountability can actually be seen in two different ways:

1) Although audit trails are also needed for accountability, no user can be accountable for their actions unless properly authenticated.

2) Accountability is another facet of access control. Individuals on a system are responsible for their actions. This accountability property enables system activities to be traced to the proper individuals. Accountability is supported by audit trails

that record events on the system and network. Audit trails can be used for intrusion detection and for the reconstruction of past events. Monitoring individual activities, such as keystroke monitoring, should be accomplished in accordance with

the company policy and appropriate laws. Banners at the log-on time should notify the user of any monitoring that is being conducted. The point is that unless you employ an appropriate auditing mechanism, you don\’t have accountability.

Authorization only gives a user certain permissions on the network. Accountability is far more complex because it also includes intrusion detection, unauthorized actions by both unauthorized users and authorized users, and system faults.

The audit trail provides the proof that unauthorized modifications by both authorized and unauthorized users took place. No proof, No accountability.

Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley and Sons, 2001, Page 50

The Shon Harris AIO book, 4th Edition, on Page 243 also states:

Auditing Capabilities ensures users are accountable for their actions, verify that the secutiy policies are enforced,

and can be used as investigation tools. Accountability is tracked by recording user, system, and application activities.

This recording is done through auditing functions and mechanisms within an operating sytem or application.

Audit trail contain information about operating System activities, application events, and user actions.

CISSP Practice TestCISSP Exam QuestionsCISSP Braindumps

Question 6:

An access control policy for a bank teller is an example of the implementation of which of the following?

A. Rule-based policy

B. Identity-based policy

C. User-based policy

D. Role-based policy

Correct Answer: D

Explanation: The position of a bank teller is a specific role within the bank, so you would implement a role-based policy.

The following answers are incorrect: Rule-based policy. Is incorrect because this is based on rules and not the role of a of a bank teller so this would not be applicable for a specific role within an organization.

Identity-based policy. Is incorrect because this is based on the identity of an individual and not the role of a bank teller so this would not be applicable for a specific role within an organization.

User-based policy. Is incorrect because this would be based on the user and not the role of a bank teller so this would not be not be applicable for a specific role within an organization.

Question 7:

What is the most critical characteristic of a biometric identifying system?

A. Perceived intrusiveness

B. Storage requirements

C. Accuracy

D. Scalability

Correct Answer: C

Explanation: Accuracy is the most critical characteristic of a biometric identifying verification system.

Accuracy is measured in terms of false rejection rate (FRR, or type I errors) and false acceptance rate (FAR or type II errors).

The Crossover Error Rate (CER) is the point at which the FRR equals the FAR and has become the most important measure of biometric system accuracy. Source: TIPTON, Harold F. and KRAUSE, Micki, Information Security Management

Handbook, 4th edition (volume 1), 2000, CRC Press, Chapter 1, Biometric Identification (page 9).

Question 8:

A smart Card that has two chips with the Capability of utilizing both Contact and Contactless formats is called:

A. Contact Smart Cards

B. Contactless Smart Cards

C. Hybrid Cards

D. Combi Cards

Correct Answer: C

Explanation: This is a contactless smart card that has two chips with the capability of utilizing both contact and contactless formats.

Two additional categories of cards are dual-interface cards and hybrid cards which is mentioned above.

Hybrid Card

A hybrid card has two chips, one with a contact interface and one with a contactless interface. The two chips are not interconnected.

Dual-Interface card

Do not confuse this card with the Hybrid Card. This one has only one chip. A dual-interface card has a single chip with both contact and contactless interfaces. With dual-interface cards, it is possible to access the same chip using either a

contact or contactless interface with a very high level of security.

Inner working of the cards

The chips used in all of these cards fall into two categories as well: microcontroller chips and memory chips. A memory chip is like a small floppy disk with optional security. Memory chips are less expensive than microcontrollers but with a

corresponding decrease in data management security. Cards that use memory chips depend on the security of the card reader for processing and are ideal for situations that require low or medium security. A microcontroller chip can add,

delete, and otherwise manipulate information in its memory. A microcontroller is like a miniature computer, with an input/output port, operating system, and hard disk. Smart cards with an embedded microcontroller have the unique ability to

store large amounts of data, carry out their own on-card functions (e.g., encryption and digital signatures) and interact intelligently with a smart card reader.

The selection of a particular card technology is driven by a variety of issues, including:

Application dynamics

Prevailing market infrastructure

Economics of the business model

Strategy for shared application cards

Smart cards are used in many applications worldwide, including:

Secure identity applications – employee ID badges, citizen ID documents, electronic passports, driver\’s licenses, online authentication devices Healthcare applications – citizen health ID cards, physician ID cards, portable medical records


Payment applications – contact and contactless credit/debit cards, transit payment cards Telecommunications applications – GSM Subscriber Identity Modules, pay telephone payment cards

The following answers are incorrect:

Contact Smart Cards

A contact smart card must be inserted into a smart card reader with a direct connection to a conductive contact plate on the surface of the card (typically gold plated). Transmission of commands, data, and card status takes place over these

physical contact points.

Contactless Smart Cards

A contactless card requires only close proximity to a reader. Both the reader and the card have antennae, and the two communicate using radio frequencies (RF) over this contactless link. Most contactless cards also derive power for the

internal chip from this electromagnetic signal. The range is typically one-half to three inches for non-battery- powered cards, ideal for applications such as building entry and payment that require a very fast card interface.

Combi Card

Are similar to Hybrid cards only they contain only one set of circuitry as apposed to two.

The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question:

Smart Card Primer at: http://www.smartcardalliance.org/pages/smart-cards-intro-primer

Question 9:

A confidential number used as an authentication factor to verify a user\’s identity is called a:


B. User ID

C. Password

D. Challenge

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: PIN Stands for Personal Identification Number, as the name states it is a combination of numbers.

The following answers are incorrect:

User ID This is incorrect because a Userid is not required to be a number and a Userid is only used to establish identity not verify it.

Password. This is incorrect because a password is not required to be a number, it could be any combination of characters.

Challenge. This is incorrect because a challenge is not defined as a number, it could be anything.

Question 10:

The best technique to authenticate to a system is to:

A. Establish biometric access through a secured server or Web site.

B. Ensure the person is authenticated by something he knows and something he has.

C. Maintain correct and accurate ACLs (access control lists) to allow access to applications.

D. Allow access only through user ID and password.

Correct Answer: B

Explanation: Something you know and something you have is two authentication factors and is better than a single authentication factor. Strong Authentication or Two Factor Authentication is widely accepted as the best practice for


There are three type of authentication factors:

Type 1 – Something you know (password, pin)

Type 2 – Something you have (token, smart card, magnetic card) Type 3 – Something you are (biometics)

Whenever two of the three types of factors are used together, this is called strong authentication or two factors authentication

The following answers are incorrect:

Establish biometric access through a secured server or Web site:

This is a single factor authentication and it could be weaker than two factors, in most cases it is . Biometric devices can be tricked or circumvented in some cases, this is why they MUST be supplemented with a second factor of authentication.

Multiple attacks have been done on different types of biometric devices. Two factors is always the best to authenticate a user.

Maintain correct and accurate ACLs (access control lists) to allow access to applications:

ACL are attached to objects. They are used within the access control matrix to define what level of access each of the subjects have on the object. It is a column within the Access Control matrix. This is related to authorization and not


Allow access only through user ID and password:

This is once again a single factor of authentication because both are something the person knows.

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