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Question 1:

A potential problem related to the physical installation of the Iris Scanner in regards to the usage of the iris pattern within a biometric system is:

A. concern that the laser beam may cause eye damage

B. the iris pattern changes as a person grows older.

C. there is a relatively high rate of false accepts.

D. the optical unit must be positioned so that the sun does not shine into the aperture.

Correct Answer: D

Because the optical unit utilizes a camera and infrared light to create the images, sun light can impact the aperture so it must not be positioned in direct light of any type. Because the subject does not need to have direct contact with the

optical reader, direct light can impact the reader. An Iris recognition is a form of biometrics that is based on the uniqueness of a subject\’s iris. A camera like device records the patterns of the iris creating what is known as Iriscode. It is the

unique patterns of the iris that allow it to be one of the most accurate forms of biometric identification of an individual. Unlike other types of biometics, the iris rarely changes over time. Fingerprints can change over time due to scaring and

manual labor, voice patterns can change due to a variety of causes, hand geometry can also change as well. But barring surgery or an accident it is not usual for an iris to change. The subject has a high-resoulution image taken of their iris

and this is then converted to Iriscode. The current standard for the Iriscode was developed by John Daugman. When the subject attempts to be authenticated an infrared light is used to capture the iris image and this image is then compared

to the Iriscode. If there is a match the subject\’s identity is confirmed. The subject does not need to have direct contact with the optical reader so it is a less invasive means of authentication then retinal scanning would be.

Reference(s) used for this question:

AIO, 3rd edition, Access Control, p 134.

AIO, 4th edition, Access Control, p 182.

Wikipedia – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_recognition The following answers are incorrect:

concern that the laser beam may cause eye damage. The optical readers do not use laser so, concern that the laser beam may cause eye damage is not an issue. the iris pattern changes as a person grows older. The question asked about

the physical installation of the scanner, so this was not the best answer. If the question would have been about long term problems then it could have been the best choice. Recent research has shown that Irises actually do change over time:

http://www.nature.com/news/ageing-eyes- hinder- biometric-scans-1.10722

there is a relatively high rate of false accepts. Since the advent of the Iriscode there is a very low rate of false accepts, in fact the algorithm used has never had a false match. This all depends on the quality of the equipment used but because

of the uniqueness of the iris even when comparing identical twins, iris patterns are unique.


Question 2:

In Mandatory Access Control, sensitivity labels attached to object contain what information?

A. The item\’s classification

B. The item\’s classification and category set

C. The item\’s category

D. The items\’s need to know

Correct Answer: B

A Sensitivity label must contain at least one classification and one category set. Category set and Compartment set are synonyms, they mean the same thing. The sensitivity label must contain at least one Classification and at least one

Category. It is common in some environments for a single item to belong to multiple categories. The list of all the categories to which an item belongs is called a compartment set or category set.

The following answers are incorrect:

the item\’s classification. Is incorrect because you need a category set as well. the item\’s category. Is incorrect because category set and classification would be both be required. The item\’s need to know. Is incorrect because there is no such

thing. The need to know is indicated by the catergories the object belongs to. This is NOT the best answer.

Reference(s) used for this question:

OIG CBK, Access Control (pages 186 – 188)

AIO, 3rd Edition, Access Control (pages 162 – 163)

AIO, 4th Edittion, Access Control, pp 212-214.

Wikipedia – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandatory_Access_Control


Question 3:

What are the components of an object\’s sensitivity label?

A. A Classification Set and a single Compartment.

B. A single classification and a single compartment.

C. A Classification Set and user credentials.

D. A single classification and a Compartment Set.

Correct Answer: D

Both are the components of a sensitivity label.

The following are incorrect:

A Classification Set and a single Compartment. Is incorrect because the nomenclature “Classification Set” is incorrect, there only one classifcation and it is not a “single compartment” but a Compartment Set.

A single classification and a single compartment. Is incorrect because while there only is one classifcation, it is not a “single compartment” but a Compartment Set.

A Classification Set and user credentials. Is incorrect because the nomenclature “Classification Set” is incorrect, there only one classifcation and it is not “user credential” but a Compartment Set. The user would have their own sensitivity label.


Question 4:

What does it mean to say that sensitivity labels are “incomparable”?

A. The number of classification in the two labels is different.

B. Neither label contains all the classifications of the other.

C. the number of categories in the two labels are different.

D. Neither label contains all the categories of the other.

Correct Answer: D

If a category does not exist then you cannot compare it. Incomparable is when you have two disjointed sensitivity labels, that is a category in one of the labels is not in the other label. “Because neither label contains all the categories of the

other, the labels can\’t be compared.

They\’re said to be incomparable”

COMPARABILITY:

The label:

TOP SECRET [VENUS ALPHA]

is “higher” than either of the labels:

SECRET [VENUS ALPHA] TOP SECRET [VENUS]

But you can\’t really say that the label:

TOP SECRET [VENUS]

is higher than the label:

SECRET [ALPHA]

Because neither label contains all the categories of the other, the labels can\’t be compared. They\’re said to be incomparable. In a mandatory access control system, you won\’t be allowed access to a file whose label is incomparable to your

clearance.

The Multilevel Security policy uses an ordering relationship between labels known as the dominance relationship. Intuitively, we think of a label that dominates another as being “higher” than the other. Similarly, we think of a label that is

dominated by another as being “lower” than the other. The dominance relationship is used to determine permitted operations and information flows.

DOMINANCE

The dominance relationship is determined by the ordering of the Sensitivity/Clearance component of the label and the intersection of the set of Compartments.

Sample Sensitivity/Clearance ordering are:

Top Secret > Secret > Confidential > Unclassified

s3 > s2 > s1 > s0

Formally, for label one to dominate label 2 both of the following must be true:

The sensitivity/clearance of label one must be greater than or equal to the sensitivity/clearance of label two.

The intersection of the compartments of label one and label two must equal the compartments of label two.

Additionally:

Two labels are said to be equal if their sensitivity/clearance and set of compartments are exactly equal. Note that dominance includes equality. One label is said to strictly dominate the other if it dominates the other but is not equal to the

other.

Two labels are said to be incomparable if each label has at least one compartment that is not included in the other\’s set of compartments.

The dominance relationship will produce a partial ordering over all possible MLS labels, resulting in what is known as the MLS Security Lattice.

The following answers are incorrect:

The number of classification in the two labels is different. Is incorrect because the categories are what is being compared, not the classifications.

Neither label contains all the classifications of the other. Is incorrect because the categories are what is being compared, not the classifications.

the number of categories in the two labels is different. Is incorrect because it is possibe a category exists more than once in one sensitivity label and does exist in the other so they would be comparable.

Reference(s) used for this question:

OReilly – Computer Systems and Access Control (Chapter 3) http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/csb/chapter/ ch03.html and

http://rubix.com/cms/mls_dom


Question 5:

Which of the following is true about Kerberos?

A. It utilizes public key cryptography.

B. It encrypts data after a ticket is granted, but passwords are exchanged in plain text.

C. It depends upon symmetric ciphers.

D. It is a second party authentication system.

Correct Answer: C

Kerberos depends on secret keys (symmetric ciphers). Kerberos is a third party authentication protocol. It was designed and developed in the mid 1980\’s by MIT. It is considered open source but is copyrighted and owned by MIT. It relies on

the user\’s secret keys. The password is used to encrypt and decrypt the keys.

The following answers are incorrect:

It utilizes public key cryptography. Is incorrect because Kerberos depends on secret keys (symmetric ciphers).

It encrypts data after a ticket is granted, but passwords are exchanged in plain text. Is incorrect because the passwords are not exchanged but used for encryption and decryption of the keys.

It is a second party authentication system. Is incorrect because Kerberos is a third party authentication system, you authenticate to the third party (Kerberos) and not the system you are accessing.

References:

MIT http://web.mit.edu/kerberos/

Wikipedi http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerberos_(protocol)

OIG CBK Access Control (pages 181 – 184)

AIOv3 Access Control (pages 151 – 155)


SSCP PDF DumpsSSCP VCE DumpsSSCP Braindumps

Question 6:

The three classic ways of authenticating yourself to the computer security software are by something you know, by something you have, and by something:

A. you need.

B. non-trivial

C. you are.

D. you can get.

Correct Answer: C

This is more commonly known as biometrics and is one of the most accurate ways to authenticate an individual. The rest of the answers are incorrect because they not one of the three recognized forms for Authentication.


Question 7:

A confidential number used as an authentication factor to verify a user\’s identity is called a: A. PIN

B. User ID

C. Password

D. Challenge

Correct Answer: A

PIN Stands for Personal Identification Number, as the name states it is a combination of numbers.

The following answers are incorrect:

User ID This is incorrect because a Userid is not required to be a number and a Userid is only used to establish identity not verify it.

Password. This is incorrect because a password is not required to be a number, it could be any combination of characters.

Challenge. This is incorrect because a challenge is not defined as a number, it could be anything.


Question 8:

Organizations should consider which of the following first before allowing external access to their LANs via the Internet?

A. plan for implementing workstation locking mechanisms.

B. plan for protecting the modem pool.

C. plan for providing the user with his account usage information.

D. plan for considering proper authentication options.

Correct Answer: D

Before a LAN is connected to the Internet, you need to determine what the access controls mechanisms are to be used, this would include how you are going to authenticate individuals that may access your network externally through access

control.

The following answers are incorrect:

plan for implementing workstation locking mechanisms. This is incorrect because locking the workstations have no impact on the LAN or Internet access.

plan for protecting the modem pool. This is incorrect because protecting the modem pool has no impact on the LAN or Internet access, it just protects the modem.

plan for providing the user with his account usage information. This is incorrect because the question asks what should be done first. While important your primary concern should be focused on security.


Question 9:

Kerberos can prevent which one of the following attacks?

A. tunneling attack.

B. playback (replay) attack.

C. destructive attack.

D. process attack.

Correct Answer: B

Each ticket in Kerberos has a timestamp and are subject to time expiration to help prevent these types of attacks.

The following answers are incorrect:

tunneling attack. This is incorrect because a tunneling attack is an attempt to bypass security and access low-level systems. Kerberos cannot totally prevent these types of attacks. destructive attack. This is incorrect because depending on

the type of destructive attack, Kerberos cannot prevent someone from physically destroying a server.

process attack. This is incorrect because with Kerberos cannot prevent an authorzied individuals from running processes.


Question 10:

In discretionary access environments, which of the following entities is authorized to grant information access to other people?

A. Manager

B. Group Leader

C. Security Manager

D. Data Owner

Correct Answer: D

In Discretionary Access Control (DAC) environments, the user who creates a file is also considered the owner and has full control over the file including the ability to set permissions for that file. The following answers are incorrect:

manager. Is incorrect because in Discretionary Access Control (DAC) environments it is the owner/user that is authorized to grant information access to other people.

group leader. Is incorrect because in Discretionary Access Control (DAC) environments it is the owner/ user that is authorized to grant information access to other people.

security manager. Is incorrect because in Discretionary Access Control (DAC) environments it is the owner/user that is authorized to grant information access to other people.

IMPORTANT NOTE: The term Data Owner is also used within Classifications as well. Under the subject of classification the Data Owner is a person from management who has been entrusted with a data set that belongs to the company. For example it could be the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) who is entrusted with all of the financial data for a company. As such the CFO would determine the classification of the financial data and who can access as well. The Data Owner would then tell the Data Custodian (a technical person) what the classification and need to know is on the specific set of data. The term Data Owner under DAC simply means whoever created the file and as the creator of the file the owner has full access and can grant access to other subjects based on their identity.


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