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A Differential backup process will:
A. Backs up data labeled with archive bit 1 and leaves the data labeled as archive bit 1
B. Backs up data labeled with archive bit 1 and changes the data label to archive bit 0
C. Backs up data labeled with archive bit 0 and leaves the data labeled as archive bit 0
D. Backs up data labeled with archive bit 0 and changes the data label to archive bit 1
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Archive bit 1 = On (the archive bit is set).
Archive bit 0 = Off (the archive bit is NOT set).
When the archive bit is set to ON, it indicates a file that has changed and needs to be backed up. Differential backups backup all files changed since the last full. To do this, they don\’t change the archive bit value when they backup a file.
Instead the differential let\’s the full backup make that change. An incremental only backs up data since the last incremental backup. Thus is does change the archive bit from 1 (On) to 0 (Off).
The following answers are incorrect:
Backs up data labeled with archive bit 1 and changes the data label to archive bit 0 – This is the behavior of an incremental backup, not a differential backup. Backs up data labeled with archive bit 0 and leaves the data labeled as archive bit 0
– If the archive bit is set to 0 (Off), it will only be backed up via a Full backup. Everything else will ignore it.
Backs up data labeled with archive bit 0 and changes the data label to archive bit 1 – If the archive bit is set to 0 (Off), it will only be backed up via a Full backup. Everything else will ignore it.
The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archive_bit
Which of the following is an issue with signature-based intrusion detection systems?
A. Only previously identified attack signatures are detected.
B. Signature databases must be augmented with inferential elements.
C. It runs only on the windows operating system
D. Hackers can circumvent signature evaluations.
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: An issue with signature-based ID is that only attack signatures that are stored in their database are detected.
New attacks without a signature would not be reported. They do require constant updates in order to maintain their effectiveness.
Reference used for this question:
KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 49
Which of the following attack is also known as Time of Check(TOC)/Time of Use(TOU)?
B. Traffic analysis
D. Race Condition
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: A Race Condition attack is also known as Time of Check(TOC)/Time of Use(TOU).
A race condition is when processes carry out their tasks on a shared resource in an incorrect order. A race condition is possible when two or more processes use a shared resource, as in data within a variable. It is important that the
processes carry out their functionality in the correct sequence. If process 2 carried out its task on the data before process 1, the result will be much different than if process1 carried out its tasks on the data before process 2
In software, when the authentication and authorization steps are split into two functions, there is a possibility an attacker could use a race condition to force the authorization step to be completed before the authentication step. This would be a
flaw in the software that the attacker has figured out how to exploit. A race condition occurs when two or more processes use the same resource and the sequences of steps within the software can be carried out in an improper order,
something that can drastically affect the output. So, an attacker can force the authorization step to take place before the authentication step and gain unauthorized access to a resource.
The following answers are incorrect:
Eavesdropping – is the act of secretly listening to the private conversation of others without their consent, as defined by Black\’s Law Dictionary. This is commonly thought to be unethical and there is an old adage that “eavesdroppers seldom
hear anything good of themselves…eavesdroppers always try to listen to matters that concern them.”
Traffic analysis – is the process of intercepting and examining messages in order to deduce information from patterns in communication. It can be performed even when the messages are encrypted and cannot be decrypted. In general, the
greater the number of messages observed, or even intercepted and stored, the more can be inferred from the traffic. Traffic analysis can be performed in the context of military intelligence, counter-intelligence, or pattern-of-life analysis, and is
a concern in computer security.
Masquerading – A masquerade attack is an attack that uses a fake identity, such as a network identity, to gain unauthorized access to personal computer information through legitimate access identification. If an authorization process is not
fully protected, it can become extremely vulnerable to a masquerade attack. Masquerade attacks can be perpetrated using stolen passwords and logons, by locating gaps in programs, or by finding a way around the authentication process.
The attack can be triggered either by someone within the organization or by an outsider if the organization is connected to a public network. The amount of access masquerade attackers get depends on the level of authorization they\’ve
managed to attain. As such, masquerade attackers can have a full smorgasbord of cyber crime opportunities if they\’ve gained the highest access authority to a business organization. Personal attacks, although less common, can also be
Following reference(s) were/was used to create this question:
CISA review manual 2014 Page number 324
Official ISC2 guide to CISSP CBK 3rd Edition Page number 66 CISSP All-In-One Exam guide 6th Edition Page Number 161
Database views are NOT used to:
A. Implement referential integrity
B. Implement least privilege
C. To implement content-dependent access restrictions
D. Implement need-to-know
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: A view is considered as a virtual table that is derived from other tables. It can be used to restrict access to certain information within the database, to hide attributes, and to implement content-dependent access restrictions. It
does not implement referential integrity.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, John Wiley and Sons, 2001, Chapter 2: Access control systems (page 46).
External consistency ensures that the data stored in the database is:
A. in-consistent with the real world.
B. remains consistant when sent from one system to another.
C. consistent with the logical world.
D. consistent with the real world.
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: External consistency ensures that the data stored in the database is consistent with the real world.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, page 33
Which of the following questions is less likely to help in assessing identification and authentication controls?
A. Is a current list maintained and approved of authorized users and their access?
B. Are passwords changed at least every ninety days or earlier if needed?
C. Are inactive user identifications disabled after a specified period of time?
D. Is there a process for reporting incidents?
Correct Answer: D
Explanation: Identification and authentication is a technical measure that prevents unauthorized people (or unauthorized processes) from entering an IT system. Access control usually requires that the system be able to identify and differentiate among users. Reporting incidents is more related to incident response capability (operational control) than to identification and authentication (technical control). Source: SWANSON, Marianne, NIST Special Publication 800-26, Security Self- Assessment Guide for Information Technology Systems, November 2001 (Pages A-30 to A-32).
Which of the following is NOT a factor related to Access Control?
Correct Answer: B
Explanation: These factors cover the integrity, confidentiality, and availability components of information system security. Integrity is important in access control as it relates to ensuring only authorized subjects can make changes to objects.
Authenticity is different from authentication. Authenticity pertains to something being authentic, not necessarily having a direct correlation to access control.
Confidentiality is pertinent to access control in that the access to sensitive information is controlled to protect confidentiality.
vailability is protected by access controls in that if an attacket attempts to disrupt availability they would first need access.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 49
Which of the following is an example of discretionary access control?
A. Identity-based access control
B. Task-based access control
C. Role-based access control
D. Rule-based access control
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: An identity-based access control is an example of discretionary access control that is based on an individual\’s identity. Identity-based access control (IBAC) is access control based on the identity of the user (typically relayed as a characteristic of the process acting on behalf of that user) where access authorizations to specific objects are assigned based on user identity.
Rule Based Access Control (RuBAC) and Role Based Access Control (RBAC) are examples of non-discretionary access controls. Rule-based access control is a type of non-discretionary access control because this access is determined by rules and the subject does not decide what those rules will be, the rules are uniformly applied to ALL of the users or subjects. In general, all access control policies other than DAC are grouped in the category of non- discretionary access control (NDAC). As the name implies, policies in this category have rules that are not established at the discretion of the user. Non-discretionary policies establish controls that cannot be changed by users, but only through administrative action. Both Role Based Access Control (RBAC) and Rule Based Access Control (RuBAC) fall within Non Discretionary Access Control (NDAC). If it is not DAC or MAC then it is most likely NDAC.
BELOW YOU HAVE A DESCRIPTION OF THE DIFFERENT CATEGORIES: MAC = Mandatory Access Control Under a mandatory access control environment, the system or security administrator will define what permissions subjects have on objects. The administrator does not dictate user\’s access but simply configure the proper level of access as
dictated by the Data Owner.
The MAC system will look at the Security Clearance of the subject and compare it with the object sensitivity level or classification level. This is what is called the dominance relationship.
The subject must DOMINATE the object sensitivity level. Which means that the subject must have a security clearance equal or higher than the object he is attempting to access. MAC also introduce the concept of labels. Every objects will
have a label attached to them indicating the classification of the object as well as categories that are used to impose the need to know (NTK) principle. Even thou a user has a security clearance of Secret it does not mean he would be able to
access any Secret documents within the system. He would be allowed to access only Secret document for which he has a Need To Know, formal approval, and object where the user belong to one of the categories attached to the object.
If there is no clearance and no labels then IT IS NOT Mandatory Access Control.
Many of the other models can mimic MAC but none of them have labels and a dominance relationship so they are NOT in the MAC category.
DAC = Discretionary Access Control
DAC is also known as: Identity Based access control system.
The owner of an object is define as the person who created the object. As such the owner has the discretion to grant access to other users on the network. Access will be granted based solely on the identity of those users.
Such system is good for low level of security. One of the major problem is the fact that a user who has access to someone\’s else file can further share the file with other users without the knowledge or permission of the owner of the file. Very
quickly this could become the wild wild west as there is no control on the dissimination of the information.
RBAC = Role Based Access Control
RBAC is a form of Non-Discretionary access control.
Role Based access control usually maps directly with the different types of jobs performed by employees within a company.
For example there might be 5 security administrator within your company. Instead of creating each of their profile one by one, you would simply create a role and assign the administrators to the role. Once an administrator has been assigned
to a role, he will IMPLICITLY inherit the permissions of that role.
RBAC is great tool for environment where there is a a large rotation of employees on a daily basis such as a very large help desk for example.
RBAC or RuBAC = Rule Based Access Control RuBAC is a form of Non-Discretionary access control. A good example of a Rule Based access control device would be a Firewall. A single set of rules is imposed to all users attempting to connect through the firewall. Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 33 and
NISTIR-7316 at http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistir/7316/NISTIR-7316pdf and http://itlaw.wikia.com/wiki/Identity-based_access_control
Data which is properly secured and can be described with terms like genuine or not corrupted from the original refers to data that has a high level of what?
Correct Answer: A
Explanation: Authenticity refers to the characteristic of a communication, document or any data that ensures the quality of being genuine or not corrupted from the original.
The following answers are incorrect:
Authorization is wrong because this refers to a users ability to access data based upon a set of credentials.
Availability is wrong because this refers to systems which deliver data are accessible when and where required by users.
Non-Repudiation is wrong because this is where a user cannot deny their actions on data they processed. Classic example is a legal document you signed either manually with a pen or digitally with a signing certificate. If it is signed then you
cannot proclaim you did not send the document or do a transaction.
The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question:
2011 EC-COUNCIL Official Curriculum, Ethical Hacking and Countermeasures, Volume 1, Module 1, Page. 11
Which of the following biometrics devices has the highest Crossover Error Rate (CER)?
A. Iris scan
B. Hand geometry
C. Voice pattern
Correct Answer: C
Explanation: The Crossover Error Rate (CER) is the point where false rejection rate (type I error) equals the false acceptance rate (type II error). The lower the CER, the better the accuracy of the device. At the time if this writing, response
times and accuracy of some devices are:
System type Response time Accuracy (CER)
Fingerprints 5-7 secs. 5%
Hand Geometry 3-5 secs. 2%
Voice Pattern 10-14 secs. 10%
Retina Scan 4-7 secs. 15%
Iris Scan 25-4 secs. 05%
The term EER which means Equal Error Rate is sometimes use instead of the term CER. It has the same meaning.
Source: Chris Hare\’s CISSP Study Notes on Physical Security, based on ISC2 CBK document. Available at http://www.ccure.org.
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