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Question 1:

Which of the following is true of two-factor authentication?

A. It uses the RSA public-key signature based on integers with large prime factors.

B. It requires two measurements of hand geometry.

C. It does not use single sign-on technology.

D. It relies on two independent proofs of identity.

Correct Answer: D

Explanation: It relies on two independent proofs of identity. Two-factor authentication refers to using two independent proofs of identity, such as something the user has (e.g. a token card) and something the user knows (a password). Two-

factor authentication may be used with single sign-on.

The following answers are incorrect: It requires two measurements of hand geometry. Measuring hand geometry twice does not yield two independent proofs.

It uses the RSA public-key signature based on integers with large prime factors. RSA encryption uses integers with exactly two prime factors, but the term “two-factor authentication” is not used in that context.

It does not use single sign-on technology. This is a detractor. The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question:

Shon Harris AIO v.3 p.129

ISC2 OIG, 2007 p. 126


Question 2:

Which of the following does not apply to system-generated passwords?

A. Passwords are harder to remember for users.

B. If the password-generating algorithm gets to be known, the entire system is in jeopardy.

C. Passwords are more vulnerable to brute force and dictionary attacks.

D. Passwords are harder to guess for attackers.

Correct Answer: C

Explanation: Users tend to choose easier to remember passwords. System-generated passwords can provide stronger, harder to guess passwords. Since they are based on rules provided by the administrator, they can include combinations of uppercase/lowercase letters, numbers and special characters, making them less vulnerable to brute force and dictionary attacks. One danger is that they are also harder to remember for users, who will tend to write them down, making them more vulnerable to anyone having access to the user\’s desk. Another danger with system-generated passwords is that if the password- generating algorithm gets to be known, the entire system is in jeopardy. Source: RUSSEL, Deborah and GANGEMI, G.T. Sr., Computer Security Basics, O\’Reilly, July 1992 (page 64).


Question 3:

In an organization where there are frequent personnel changes, non-discretionary access control using Role Based Access Control (RBAC) is useful because:

A. people need not use discretion

B. the access controls are based on the individual\’s role or title within the organization.

C. the access controls are not based on the individual\’s role or title within the organization

D. the access controls are often based on the individual\’s role or title within the organization

Correct Answer: B

Explanation: In an organization where there are frequent personnel changes, non- discretionary access control (also called Role Based Access Control) is useful because the access controls are based on the individual\’s role or title within the

organization. You can easily configure a new employee acces by assigning the user to a role that has been predefine. The user will implicitly inherit the permissions of the role by being a member of that role.

These access permissions defined within the role do not need to be changed whenever a new person takes over the role.

Another type of non-discretionary access control model is the Rule Based Access Control (RBAC or RuBAC) where a global set of rule is uniformly applied to all subjects accessing the resources. A good example of RuBAC would be a

firewall. This question is a sneaky one, one of the choice has only one added word to it which is often. Reading questions and their choices very carefully is a must for the real exam.

Reading it twice if needed is recommended.

Shon Harris in her book list the following ways of managing RBAC:

Role-based access control can be managed in the following ways:

?Non-RBAC Users are mapped directly to applications and no roles are used. (No roles being used)

?Limited RBAC Users are mapped to multiple roles and mapped directly to other types of applications that do not have role-based access functionality. (A mix of roles for applications that supports roles and explicit access control would be

used for applications that do not support roles)

?Hybrid RBAC Users are mapped to multiapplication roles with only selected rights assigned to those roles.

?Full RBAC Users are mapped to enterprise roles. (Roles are used for all access being granted)

NIST defines RBAC as:

Security administration can be costly and prone to error because administrators usually specify access control lists for each user on the system individually. With RBAC, security is managed at a level that corresponds closely to the

organization\’s structure. Each user is assigned one or more roles, and each role is assigned one or more privileges that are permitted to users in that role. Security administration with RBAC consists of determining the operations that must be

executed by persons in particular jobs, and assigning employees to the proper roles. Complexities introduced by mutually exclusive roles or role hierarchies are handled by the RBAC software, making security administration easier.

Reference(s) used for this question:

KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 32 and

Harris, Shon (2012-10-25). CISSP All-in-One Exam Guide, 6th Edition McGraw-Hill.

and

http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/rbac/


Question 4:

The fact that a network-based IDS reviews packets payload and headers enable which of the following?

A. Detection of denial of service

B. Detection of all viruses

C. Detection of data corruption

D. Detection of all password guessing attacks

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: Because a network-based IDS reviews packets and headers, denial of service attacks can also be detected.

This question is an easy question if you go through the process of elimination. When you see an answer containing the keyword: ALL It is something a give away that it is not the proper answer. On the real exam you may encounter a few


Question 5:

Which of the following exemplifies proper separation of duties?

A. Operators are not permitted modify the system time.

B. Programmers are permitted to use the system console.

C. Console operators are permitted to mount tapes and disks.

D. Tape operators are permitted to use the system console.

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: This is an example of Separation of Duties because operators are prevented from modifying the system time which could lead to fraud. Tasks of this nature should be performed by they system administrators.

AIO defines Separation of Duties as a security principle that splits up a critical task among two or more individuals to ensure that one person cannot complete a risky task by himself.

The following answers are incorrect:

Programmers are permitted to use the system console. Is incorrect because programmers should not be permitted to use the system console, this task should be performed by operators. Allowing programmers access to the system console

could allow fraud to occur so this is not an example of Separation of Duties..

Console operators are permitted to mount tapes and disks. Is incorrect because operators should be able to mount tapes and disks so this is not an example of Separation of Duties.

Tape operators are permitted to use the system console. Is incorrect because operators should be able to use the system console so this is not an example of Separation of Duties.

OIG CBK Access Control (page 98 – 101)

AIOv3 Access Control (page 182)


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Question 6:

Which of the following term best describes a weakness that could potentially be exploited?

A. Vulnerability

B. Risk

C. Threat

D. Target of evaluation (TOE)

Correct Answer: A

Explanation: A vulnerability is mostly a weakness, it could be a weakness in a piece of sotware, it could be a weakness in your physical security, it could take many forms. It is a weakness that could be exploited by a Threat. For example an

open firewall port, a password that is never changed, or a flammable carpet. A missing Control is also considered to be a Vulnerability.

The following answers are incorrect:

Risk:

It is the combination of a threat exploiting some vulnerability that could cause harm to some asset. Management is concerned with many types of risk. Information Technology (IT) security risk management addresses risks that arise from an

organization\’s use of information technology. Usually a threat agent will give rise to the threat which will attempt to take advantage of one of your vulnerability.

Risk is a function of the likelihood that a threat scenario will materialize, its resulting impact (consequences) and the existence/effectiveness of safeguards. If the evaluation of the risk meets the risk deemed acceptable by management,

nothing needs to be done. Situations where evaluation of the risk exceeds the accepted risk (target risk) will necessitate a risk management decision such as implementing a safeguard to bring the risk down to an acceptable level.

Threat:

Possibility that vulnerability may be exploited to cause harm to a system, environment, or personnel. Any potential danger. The risk level associated with a threat is evaluated by looking at the likelihood which is how often it could happen and

the impact (which is how much exposure or lost you would suffer) it would have on the asset. A low impact threat that repeats itself multiple times would have to be addressed. A high impact threat that happen not very often would have to be

addressed as well.

Target of evaluation:

The term Target of evaluation is a term used under the common criteria evaluation scheme. It defines the product being evaluated. It was only a detractor in this case and it is not directly related to risk management.

Risk management info

Risk Management is an iterative process, which ensures that reasonable and cost-effective steps are taken to protect the:

Confidentiality of information stored, processed, or transmitted electronically Integrity of the information and related processes

Availability of the information, systems and services against accidental and deliberate threats

Value of the asset and the cost of its replacement if it is compromised

You can manage risk by:

Confirming the appropriateness of minimum standards Supplementing the standards when necessary

Eliminating unnecessary expenditures and administrative barriers

Managing risk therefore, means defining:

What is at risk

Magnitude of the risk

Causal factors

What to do about the risk

The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question:

http://www.cse-cst.gc.ca/tutorials/english/section2/m2/index_e.htm and

The official CEH courseware Version 6 Module 1


Question 7:

What is called the access protection system that limits connections by calling back the number of a previously authorized location?

A. Sendback systems

B. Callback forward systems

C. Callback systems

D. Sendback forward systems

Correct Answer: C

Explanation: The Answer: Call back Systems; Callback systems provide access protection by calling back the number of a previously authorized location, but this control can be compromised by call forwarding. Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 35


Question 8:

Which best describes a tool (i.e. keyfob, calculator, memory card or smart card) used to supply dynamic passwords?

A. Tickets

B. Tokens

C. Token passing networks

D. Coupons

Correct Answer: B

Explanation: Tokens; Tokens in the form of credit card-size memory cards or smart cards, or those resembling small calculators, are used to supply static and dynamic passwords.

Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 37


Question 9:

In non-discretionary access control using Role Based Access Control (RBAC), a central authority determines what subjects can have access to certain objects based on the organizational security policy. The access controls may be based on:

A. The societies role in the organization

B. The individual\’s role in the organization

C. The group-dynamics as they relate to the individual\’s role in the organization

D. The group-dynamics as they relate to the master-slave role in the organization

Correct Answer: B

Explanation: In Non-Discretionary Access Control, when Role Based Access Control is being used, a central authority determines what subjects can have access to certain objects based on the organizational security policy. The access

controls may be based on the individual\’s role in the organization.

Reference(S) used for this question:

KRUTZ, Ronald L. and VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley and Sons, Page 33


Question 10:

Which of the following is not a security goal for remote access?

A. Reliable authentication of users and systems

B. Protection of confidential data

C. Easy to manage access control to systems and network resources

D. Automated login for remote users

Correct Answer: D

Explanation: An automated login function for remote users would imply a weak authentication, thus certainly not a security goal. Source: TIPTON, Harold F. and KRAUSE, Micki, Information Security Management Handbook, 4th edition, volume 2, 2001, CRC Press, Chapter 5: An Introduction to Secure Remote Access (page 100).


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